|Year||Title (Author, Description)||File Download|
A Method for Measuring Sediment Production from Forest Roads
Predicting sediment production from forest roads is necessary to determine their impact on watersheds and associated terrestrial and stream biota. A method is presented for measuring sediment originating from a road segment for individual storm events and quantifying the delivery to streams. Site selection criteria are listed to describe the characteristics for efficient data collection and analysis. The method describes equipment used to quantify sediment transport—data loggers, a rain gage, a traffic counter, Parshall flumes with stilling wells, hydrostatic pressure transducers, and water pumping samplers—as well as variables associated with sediment production—road surfacing material, traffic intensity, gradient, age, construction method, and precipitation. A sampling protocol that worked well for the forest roads in southeast Alaska and can be adapted for use in other regions also is described. Examples of data collection and analysis are explained both for sites near the road and downstream sites for sediment delivery quantification. This method can be used to determine the downstream transport of sediment originating from roads and developing regression models or validating existing sediment models.
|Contact ALCES for Keith Kahklen, 2001|
Development of a Threshold Approach for Assessing Industrial Impacts on Woodland Caribou in Yukon
Robert B. Anderson, M.Sc., P.Biol., R.B.Bio. Simon J. Dyer, M.Sc., P.Biol. Shawn R. Francis, M.Sc.,
To date, no jurisdiction in Canada has established, implemented and enforced cumulative effects thresholds for industrial activity in woodland caribou range. Instead, guidelines and regulations have been put in place in an attempt to minimize and mitigate the impacts of individual development projects on caribou. Under this system of management, many caribou populations throughout the provinces are either the focus of concern or have been extirpated from former ranges. In some situations, caribou ranges have already been severely impacted and will require a great deal of effort, financial resources, and political will to return habitat effectiveness to an acceptable level. Yukon has a unique opportunity to develop and implement cumulative effects thresholds for caribou range prior to large-scale industrial development over significant areas. This must be initiated now if Yukon wishes to have healthy caribou populations in perpetuity. The current report is intended to assess potential threshold approaches and recommend a methodology for setting industrial thresholds for woodland caribou range in Yukon. The criteria for recommending a threshold development strategy was that it: 1) be directly relevant to caribou ecology, 2) truly assess cumulative effects of known human influences on caribou, 3) be able to suggest a clear threshold, and 4) be usable and acceptable by a wide range of stakeholders. Based on a literature review, experience from other jurisdictions, and consideration of the Yukon situation, it was concluded that the most appropriate method for developing cumulative effects thresholds for Yukon caribou range was the habitat effectiveness approach, whether it be based on a full habitat effectiveness model or simply a total zone of influence. This approach addresses the influence of industrial activity on caribou ecology, includes cumulative effects from several disturbance types, can be related to clear thresholds, and generally meets the criteria of being usable and acceptable by a wide range of stakeholders. Although habitat effectiveness calculations incorporate, in a general sense, the importance of human features in changing mortality rates due to humans and other predators, and the effects of spatial distribution of harvest on caribou habitat effectiveness, there are obvious limitations to this relatively simple threshold approach. Range-specific factors, such as predator density, or distance to human settlements, may influence caribou recruitment and survival differently, despite ranges having similar habitat effectiveness values. Despite these limitations, setting of thresholds represents a risk management exercise for development of industrial activity in caribou range, and is a more defensible management technique than the alternative approaches (projectspecific mitigation strategies), which have largely failed in other jurisdictions Most elements required for the development and implementation of the habitat effectiveness approach within Yukon already exist. The data required to set a threshold for Yukon caribou range are either already in existence, or could be acquired in a timely fashion. The technical expertise and technological resources required to implement thresholds currently exist in Yukon and are fully capable of developing the tools needed to assess proposed projects and undertake long-term range planning. The coordination of these activities among government agencies and existing management structures will be the greatest challenge to implementing a threshold approach for Yukon.
|Contact ALCES for Robert B. Anderson, M.Sc., P.Biol., R.B.Bio. Simon J. Dyer, M.Sc., P.Biol. Shawn R. Francis, M.Sc., , 2002|
Models and Data: What are they saying about cumulative effects on wildlife species important to the community of Fort McKay
Wildlife is an integral part of the Fort McKay’s culture. Since the start of development (late 1960s) there has been a transformation of traditional lands from boreal forest and wetlands into oil sands development (open pit mines, in situ operations, and associated infrastructure). The environmental impact assessments (EIAs) prepared by oil sands operators and proponents repeatedly claim that these developments will have little impact on wildlife populations and their habitats because reclamation will return the land to a productive state. Fort McKay Community members are skeptical of future reclamation success and believe that development already has negatively impacted certain wildlife populations. The Fort McKay also has concerns about the project by project review process and the assessment of cumulative effects. This report provides brief summaries of studies that show cumulative effects on wildlife important to the Fort McKay. This report also presents wildlife data from EIAs and the findings of a recent study on wildlife habitat models used in the oil sands region. Four wildlife species; moose, beaver, fisher/marten, and Canada lynx are emphasized because of their cultural importance. The moose and beaver are considered Cultural Keystone species for the Fort McKay Community (Garibaldi 2006). Canada lynx, fisher, and marten are furbearers vital to the Fort McKay’s traditional economy. Fisher and marten are lumped together because of the difficultly in differentiating their snow tracks in the field. Sources of information for this report are as follows: 􀁸 Results of the Fort McKay Specific Assessment (FMSA); 􀁸 Results of modeling completed for the Lower Athabasca Regional Plan (LARP) and Terrestrial Ecosystem Management Framework (TEMF); 􀁸 Aerial surveys completed by the Alberta Sustainable Resource Development (ASRD); 􀁸 Wildlife data collected in the oil sands region in support of environmental impact assessments; 􀁸 Population viability analysis (PVA) modelling reports completed in the oil sands region; and 􀁸 Analysis of habitat models used in the oil sands region completed by CEMA. In 2011, 1.7 million barrels of bitumen were produced in the oil sands region of Alberta. This quantity is expected to reach 3.5 million barrels per day by 2020 (Alberta Government 2012). We summarize modeling results that predict impacts from oil sands development. We also provide information that shows how the present project by project EIA process is failing to assess cumulative effects on wildlife. We provide recommendations that will reduce impacts and allow for the future recovery of wildlife in the Fort McKay’s Traditional Territory.
|Contact ALCES for Lorne Gould, 2012|
Better Farming; Better Air
H.H. Janzen, R.L. Desjardins, P. Rochette, M. Boehm and D. Worth
Review of agricultural practices and their contributions to GHG
|Contact ALCES for H.H. Janzen, R.L. Desjardins, P. Rochette, M. Boehm and D. Worth, 2008|
THE IMPLICATIONS OF ALTERNATIVE GROWTH PATTERNS ON INFRASTRUCTURE COSTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Purpose of Report Calgary has seen record levels of growth over the last few years and population and economic growth is expected to continue in the future. Over the next 60 years the population in the city itself is expected to grow from approximately 1 million to 2.3 million persons, with another 0.5 million people in the surrounding region. This level of growth offers the opportunity, and the need, to shape the future land use and transportation patterns of Calgary. Plan It Calgary has commissioned this study to assist in development of an integrated plan for land use and transportation. It examines the infrastructure implications of two growth patterns. The Dispersed Scenario reflects current trends and the continuation of current city policies, while the new Recommended Direction intensifies jobs and population in specific areas of the city, and links them with high-quality transit services. The types of infrastructure investigated in this report are transportation (roads and transit), water and sewer services, police, fire, parks, recreation centres and schools. Key Findings • The land required for Plan It Calgary’s Recommended Direction is 25% smaller than the Dispersed Scenario (which reflects current policy and trends). • The cost to build Recommended Direction is 33% less expensive than the Dispersed Scenario. • The Recommended Direction would be less expensive to operate and maintain over the next 60 years than the Dispersed Scenario. • The cost to build, maintain and replace aging streets has the largest impact when comparing costs between the two growth patterns. Reduced greenfield growth in the Recommended Direction will result in a 36% cost savings for new streets compared to the Dispersed Scenario, and will also reduce maintenance and replacement costs. • Enhanced Primary Transit service proposed in the Recommended Direction would actually be less expensive to build than extending transit to suburban communities in the Dispersed Scenario. Increased transit ridership in Recommended Direction, which provides double the service compared to the Dispersed Scenario, means that it would cost approximately the same to operate transit in both growth patterns. • Reduced greenfield growth in Recommended Direction will result in a 55% cost savings for water and wastewater systems compared to the Dispersed Scenario. There would be no net difference in costs for the existing parts of Calgary since replacement of water and wastewater systems will be required as infrastructure ages. Significant intensification of existing areas and growth in new greenfield communities could both trigger the need to upgrade existing systems.
|Contact ALCES for IBI Group, 2009|
Catchment Disturbance and Stream Response: An Overview of Stream Research at Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory
Webster, Golladay, Benfield, Meyer, Swank, Wallace
People interested in stream pollution frequently make a distinction between point-source and non-point-source pollution. Point-source pollution comes out of a pipe; non-point pollution generally enters streams in run-off from surrounding land. It is our contention that non-point-source pollution is a major contributor to degradation of water quality and ecosystem integrity in rivers; the direct effects are primarily to small streams and are then transmitted downstream to larger rivers. In this chapter we illustrate how a terrestrial disturbance affects small streams and how these streams respond to and recover from the disturbance.
|Contact ALCES for Webster, Golladay, Benfield, Meyer, Swank, Wallace , 1992|
A Checklist for Evaluating Alberta's New Land-Use Initiatives
Public land management in Alberta is once again under scrutiny thanks to several policy initiatives and stakeholder consultations recently launched by the provincial government. Many stakeholder groups and individuals who pay attention to land-use issues must be wondering whether or not they should participate in this flurry of activity and how likely it is to achieve significant results.
|Contact ALCES for Steve Kennett, 2006|
Chief Mountain Cumulative Effects Study
Barry Wilson and Mark Hudson
The Chief Mountain Study attempts to balance the perspectives of different stakeholders in the area and is based on the premise that all land uses examined provide economic benefits, but these benefits may have associated environmental liabilities, such as impacts on surface and groundwater or the loss of natural biodiversity. It also recognizes some liabilities may be minor by themselves, but have more serious cumulative effects. The study attempts to identify potentially conflicting land use trends and to show that even the decisions of individuals can have beneficial or negative consequences.
|Contact ALCES for Barry Wilson and Mark Hudson, 2011|
Forecast of Common Air Contaminants in Alberta (1995 to 2020)
Cheminfo Services Inc.
The main focus of this report is on the growth in anthropogenic emissions from industrial sources in Alberta. Large natural sources are documented and included in the total emissions, but in the forecast period from 1995 to 2020, these are kept constant at 1995 levels. These sources are highly variable from year to year such that any analysis regarding how they may change due to natural causes (e.g., lightning for forest fires, precipitation, temperatures, etc.) requires further detailed research and customized modelling beyond the scope of this project. By keeping emissions from natural sources constant, it focuses the analysis of changes in CAC emissions on anthropogenic sources. The inclusion of natural sources provides perspective on the relative contribution to total CAC air emissions and can be useful for regional ambient air quality modelling using the results of this analysis.
|Contact ALCES for Cheminfo Services Inc., 2002|
COSEWIC's Assessment Process and Criteria
The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada
The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) exists to provide Canadians and their governments with advice regarding the status of wildlife species that are nationally at risk of extinction or extirpation. The COSEWIC process is divided into three sequential steps, each of which has a tangible outcome. These are detailed below. • selection of wildlife species requiring assessment - the COSEWIC Candidate List; • compilation of available data, knowledge and information - the COSEWIC status report; and • assessment of a wildlife species' risk of extinction or extirpation and subsequent designation - the record of COSEWIC assessment results.
|Contact ALCES for The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, 2010|